대학교 과제로 정리한 자료이지만 그냥 올려봅니다.
포스팅 올리고 싶은 것은 많은데 머릿속에서만 빙빙 돌고 있네요.
이럴때면 그냥 내 생각을 타이핑 해주는 기계가 있으면 얼마나 편할까 하는 생각이 듭니다.
위키나 이곳 저곳에서 본 소스를 포함하고 있으나 레퍼런스는 따로 표기하지 않았습니다.
그리고 분량 제한이 있었기 때문에 A4 4장 짜리에요.
I've made this some time ago for my enneagram class.
I wanted to post lots of things, but they only whirling in my head.
I really wish there was some kind of machine that can type out what I'm thinking right away.
This matter consists of sources from wikipedia and other internet pages, but I havent mentioned the reference.
And as there were page limits, it's about 4 pages on A4
Taking this class of enneagram, I was excited about it's approach in revealing the spiritual and psychological potential of a human being. I've been interested in various kinds of mysticism almost for a decade. Although it is actually treated more like a self diagnosis tool in modern society confused with MBTI, enneagram is still one kind of them. We used the text book called 'Understanding the Enneagram'. As Enneagram had been introduce by Gurdjieff, it starts with presenting the enneagram ideas from Fourth Way schools and other awareness practices. I found this book quite useful in obtaining the basics of enneagram.
History of Enneagram
To understand about enneagram more precisely, you need to know about it's history first. No one is sure about it's origin. But it is assumed that it is derived from an antient knowledge called 'Enneagram System'. This system is synthesis of universal truth and ancient knowledges passed down orally. Thus consists of Catholic, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism and other religious and philosophical wisdoms.
Passing through Pythagoras and Neo-Platonism (100BC), Orthodox Churches in Greek and Russia(500AC), Sufism in Islam(14-15century) orally, enneagram system has been first introduced to the west by George Ivanovich Gurdjieff. He had been introduced to the systems of enneagram by Naqshbandis, an sufism group, and pronounced his studies on enneagram in Paris between 1915~1916.
However, he did not develop the nine personality types associated with the enneagram. Oscar Ichazo is generally recognized as the principal source if the contemporary enneagram of personality. In 1960s Ichazo founded the Arica Institute which was originally based in Chile before moving to the United States and coined the term "Enneagram of Personality".
Claudio Naranjo, a psychiatrist who first learned the enneagram from Ichazo at a course in Arica, began developing and teaching his own understanding of the enneagram in the United States in the early 1970s, influencing others, including some Jesuit priests who adapted the enneagram for use in christian spirituality.
After that, Riso and Hudson rearranged Gurdjieff and Ichazo's enneagram personality psychologically, to get away from it's mystical and religious approach.
Enneagram we meet nowadays is what they have arranged in 1980s.
What is Enneagram
Enneagram is not a typology that is commonly taught or researched in academic physiology. Some even define it as a fraud. But it is widely promoted in both business management and spiritual contexts through seminars, conference, books, and magazines.
In business contexts, it is generally used as a typology to gain insights into workplace dynamics. Spiritually, it is more commonly presented as a path to higher states of being, essence, and enlightenment. It has been described as a method for self-understanding and self-development but has been criticized as being subject to interpretation, making it difficult to test or validate scientifically.
Getting to know more about enneagram, we should remember that Gurdjieff introduced enneagram to the western society. He was an influential spiritual master of the early twentieth century. His concept to describe an approach to self-development is called the Fourth Way, and this is fully adapted on enneagram. Although Ichazo developed it and made the term 'Enneagram of Personality', we can easily see that the basic teachings of Gurdjieff have been untouched. Gurdjieff said that the enneagram is a universal symbol. All knowledge can be included in the enneagram and with the help of the enneagram it can be interpreted. A man may be quite alone in the desert and he can trace the enneagram in the sand and in it read the eternal laws of the universe. And every time he can learn something new, something he did not know before.
What the book introduces at first is the principle areas in which to use enneagram.
Self-understanding and understanding others. Seeing ourselves as who we really are and have harmonious relationships with other people. It introduces that the enneagram reveals the patterns by which we organize and helps us to deal with them. And talks about how our early stages of life had effects on us. How our parent unintentionally sent message to us as a childhood to hide ourselves, How they become like a trauma and gradually locks down our potentials.
It's better to explaining it while looking at the enneagram figure.
Enneagram is a combined word of Greek
[enneas : meaning nine] and [grammos : meaning point]
There are nine points that explains each types of personalities.
and they are each related.
This figure is combined of an circle. triangle, and a hexad.
I also want to say that it is the time when a person is born. The time when he or she has the ultimate potential without any of the possibilities closed.
And with the Law of 3, we can be ideal human being.
It can also be referred as the people in age of 3. the time when one third of their potential are left.
Hexad means direction and continuity. It express that 9 types of personality always interact each other and changes.
Hexad imply the Law of 7, a law that universe circulates within the number 7. Also, when you divide 1 to 7 the number 0.142857 comes out. So it also shows that which had been actually one thing flows in 7 parts.
I also want to say that this explains the age of 6. The age when a person's basic personality or potential is divided into 1/9.
Three common problems
For those new to enneagram should be careful about the three common problems.
First, when they answer the test sheet, they tent to check what they want to be, not what they really are. This action can come out from a fear of getting know of real-self. Anxious of finding out who they don't want to be and as a result, deceiving themselves.
Second problem is that people tend to make an identification based on a single trait. Though the test result has shown you as a certain type, it doesn't mean that you are only that type. You can have two, three or more. There are similar types, traits that you haven't recognized. After all, the purpose of enneagram is to find yourself and follow your self-developing path to obtain the potentials you have forgotten.
Third problem is that people are tempted to pick and choose among the traits as if the description were a smorgasbord. You cant choose your personality at your favor. It's not what you can throw away stick and get off like a post-it. Personality grow out of each other, proceeding one to one. They are expression of our life, our basic fears and desires, our needs and reaction to ourselves and the world around us.
Triads of Enneagram
Each human personality is said to fall into one of nine types. And this number is said to reveal the hidden motivation for everything a person does. Nor of the nine types are arbitrary and they fall into groups of three. Thinking, Feeling, and Instinct, which are always imbalanced. Each group is one of the 'Triads of Enneagram'. Types two, three, and four are types in the Feeling Triad. Types five, six, and seven consists the Thinking Triad. Types eight, nine, and one is the Instinctive triad. Each triad an inner structure based on a dialectical relationship among the three types in it. In each triad there are types that 'overexpresses', 'underexpresses' and 'out of the touch' with the faculty of the triad. If we move from triad to triad, we can observe this dialectical relationships more clearly. A person should have this Triads balanced. The result of imbalanced Triads is that a person's 'true self' is always hidden beneath a 'false self'.
Types of 9 personality.
Type 1 - Perfectionist
Basic Fear : Of being bad, condemned. / Basic Desire : To be right.
Type 2 - Helper
Basic Fear : Of being unloved. / Basic Desire : To be loved.
Type 3 - Succeeder
Basic Fear : Of being worthless, rejected. / Basic Desire : To be accepted.
Type 4 - Artist
Basic Fear : Of being without identity, defective. / Basic Desire : To understand the self.
Type 5 - Thinker
Basic Fear : Of being useless / Basic Desire : To understand the environment.
Type 6 - Loyalist
Basic Fear : Of being abandoned. / Basic Desire : To have security.
Type 7 - Adventurer
Basic Fear : Of being deprived. Trapped in pain. / Basic Desire : To be satisfied.
Type 8 - Leader
Basic Fear : Of being controlled or violated. Basic / Desire : To be self-reliant.
Type 9 - Peacemaker
Basic Fear : Of loss and separation. / Basic Desire : To have union with other.
These nine types of personality influence each other. They are not absolute. You can share a positive type or negative by integration and disintegration. Or correspond with your wings.
The direction your type integrate in good way is type1 to type7, 7 to 5, 5 to 8, 8 to 2, 2 to 4, and 4 to 1. And for Type 3,6,9 they are with themselves. Type 3 moves to type 6 and 6 to 9 and so on. The disintegration way is backwards.
Each types can be analysed in Passion, Temptation, Conversion, and Virtues.
A person should transform passion to virtue to awaken yourself.
Enneagram terminology may sound Catholic, but it really isn't. Actually, the Vatican has even warned against the use of the Enneagram as a means to spiritual growth and consider that it conflicts with Christian beliefs.
For further more information, I'll put a link to wikipedia.